Non-pollution cabbage lettuce winter and spring cultivation techniques

Non-pollution lettuce cultivation base should be far away from industrial areas and urban pollution sources, environmental conditions are good, the base of the atmosphere, irrigation water, soil, respectively, to meet the pollution-free agricultural base air quality standards (GB3095-1996), production field water quality standards (GB5084 - 1992), Soil Environmental Standards for Farmland (BG15618-1995). 1 Cultivate strong seedlings (1) Choose varieties with strong cold resistance, disease resistance, and adaptability to mention the morning market, such as Dahu 659, Emperor, and Jingyou No.1. (2) Lettuce lettuce cool and moist, avoid hot and frost-resistant. In the northern region, spring sowing and summer harvest are the first ones, and sowing is started in batches from January to early May. The second is the sowing of early winter sowing at the end of the summer. (3) Loose, well-drained soil should be selected as the seedbed, and fertilization should be conducted 7 to 10 days before sowing. The site preparation must be fine, and fine-grained and flattened. Apply 1 kg of high quality agricultural fertilizer per square meter of seedbed, evenly spread the ground, plow 10~12cm deep, plowing and dosing evenly and level after practical. (4) The lettuce seeds are small and the top soil ability is weak. Before sowing, the seeds need to be germinated at a temperature of 20°C to 25°C. The seed amount per 667m2 is 25 to 30g, and the cover soil after sowing is 0.5 to 1cm. The seedbed temperature is controlled. In 20 °C ~ 25 °C, often keep the surface moist, 35d after the Qimiao. The daytime temperature after emergence is controlled at 18°C ​​to 20°C and at night at 8°C to 10°C. When three true leaves are planted, the seedlings are spaced 8cm8cm apart and planted when the fifth true leaf is fully developed. 2 Site preparation When the seedlings grow to 5 true leaves, the seedling age can be set in 40-50 days. Spring planting is generally in mid-March, in advance in early February to advance sheds to improve the shed temperature; autumn planting is generally in early September, when the outside temperature dropped below 15 °C to timely shed. The land to be planted should be selected for organic-rich, loose, water, fertilizer-conserving soil. Each 667m2 of high-quality farmyard fertilizer is 5000 to 7000kg for basal fertilizer, deep-turned 25cm, ploughed and hoeed, and the width is 1 to 1.2m. Local temperature stability through 5 °C transplanting, spacing 30 ~ 35cm, row spacing 40 ~ 45cm, start cutting seedlings, planting seedlings, pouring water, about 5,000 seedlings per 667m2. 3 Cultivation Management (1) Pay attention to greenhouse insulation after transplanting, use multiple layers to cover, and control the temperature inside the greenhouse. After the autumn seedlings are planted, the indoor temperature can be slightly higher during daytime of planting, with 22°C to 25°C during the day and 15°C to 20°C at night. After easing the seedlings, the temperature is slightly lower than that in the previous period after the start of the mulching. The temperature is 15°C to 20°C during the day and 10°C during the night. From the start of the heart to the leaf ball, it is maintained at around 20°C during the day and 15°C to 20°C during the night. The harvest period is postponed and is controlled between 10°C and 15°C during the day and 5°C during the night. (2) Lettuce with lettuce needs more fertilizer, in addition to the application of full-body fertilizer, but also after the application of fast-acting fertilizer to meet the need. Generally after 5 to 6 days after planting, the first fertilizer is chased, followed by a small amount of quick-effect N fertilizer to promote the growth of the leaves; 15 to 20 days are followed by the second time, NPK compound fertilizer is better, and 15 to 20 kg of fertilizer is applied per 667 square meters; Hold the ball every 667m2 to recover 1 NPK compound fertilizer 10 ~ 15kg, in order to ensure the normal growth and development of leaves. Watering is a key link in ball culture. Seedlings generally see the soil wet and dry. Hair growth should be properly controlled and the water supply should be increased during the ball stage. Water should not be too much in the later period to avoid the occurrence of fissuring. Stop watering before harvest to avoid causing rot, which is not conducive to storage and transportation. (3) As the lettuce has a special aroma and disease resistance, the pests and diseases in the cultivation process are relatively few, mainly to prevent the sclerotinia at the seedling stage and the top burning disease occurring during the vegetative growth. The prevention of sclerotinia is mainly to control the moisture of the seedbed. If sclerotinia occurs, 50% of carbendazim WP can be used 500 times, 7 to 10 days to spray once, and spray 2 to 3 times. For the top burning disease is mainly to prevent mechanical damage to the plant, pay attention to control of soil moisture, late avoid nitrogen too much. If the rot is severe, the entire plant should be removed. 4 Harvesting at the right time 40 ~ 50 days after the general planting began harvesting, with the harvest. The harvesting standard is moderate ball tightness. Premature harvesting affects yield; late harvesting, leaf ball inner diameter elongation, leaf ball loosening, perishable, and reduced quality. (Longjiang County Agricultural Technology Extension Center of Heilongjiang Province, Longjiang, Heilongjiang 161100)

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