Catfish breeding high yield technology

Carp, also known as flower carp and seven-star carp, is taxonomically taxonomic and fat family. Because it breeds and grows along the coast, it differs from freshwater Californian and sweet-scented osmanthus cultivars. It is also known as sea otters. The squid is one of the four major names of fishes, squid, mackerel, and squid in the waters of the Xijiang River. The squid has a firm, tasty and nutritious meat. Each gram of fish contains 17.5 grams of protein, 3.1 grams of fat, and a variety of vitamins. Live habits of carp Carp live in the shallow sea estuary, is salty and wide, and the seedlings are hatched in seawater with a salinity of about 22 ,, then they go back to the river and live in the estuary where salty water meets, and they can enter the freshwater waters for food and grow. Most fish inhabit in brackish water. Squid is a fierce carnivorous fish. It has a large food intake. It can consume 5% to 12% of its body weight. Its prey is strongest in spring and summer. The fish fry with copepods and mantis shrimp grow to 10 cm. After the body length, they will eat small fish and shrimp. The growth rate of carp is faster. The breeding period is generally from November to January of the following year. The fry grows to the end of the body at 25 cm in length and weighs 0.5 kg. The fish in the 6th instar has a length of 0.8 m. The largest individual has a length of 1 m and weight 15. - 20 kg. Artificially farmed squid have a faster speed, and usually 280 days of breeding can reach more than one jin. The squid can normally feed on the water above 14°C. It can naturally overwinter in this area, which is beneficial to the balanced marketing of large-scale commercial fish in the next year. Artificial breeding conditions Water Quality: Carp can grow in fresh water, but according to its natural habits, the breeding conditions are better in the brackish water area where the tide arrives, and the fish and fish in the river mouth are the best, and the water salinity can be Below 5‰, the rate of growth in the high salinity waters is rather slow. In addition, the culture water quality requires fresh and dissolved oxygen. Ponds: Each pond has an area of ​​8-15 acres and a water depth of more than 2 meters. The pond is too small, the water body is narrow, and the dissolved oxygen is insufficient. It is difficult to achieve high yields; the ponds are too large and too deep, which is unfavorable for production operations. The ponds should be provided with drainage culvert gates leading to the rivers for drainage and drainage, respectively, and no use of culture water should be repeated to avoid secondary pollution. Mechanical equipment: A 1.5-kilowatt impeller aerator is provided for every 3 mu of water surface, which is the basic condition for high-yield aquaculture. Each pond is equipped with more than one 3-kilowatt water pump to ensure that new water can be replaced at any time without entering or draining water. Brake ponds are more necessary; in addition, depending on the aquaculture area and the amount of feed, it is decided to configure a small fish mincer. In order to ensure the smooth production, in addition to the power line to Tangtou, for the use of farming machinery, but also to the road to Tongtou, to facilitate the transportation of feed and products. Seedling selection and cultivation practices have shown that carp fry from the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea are larger and grow faster than individuals in the South China Sea; artificially propagated fry have a higher survival rate than natural fish caught. Therefore, the choice of fingerlings is first to use the fry which was artificially propagated in the broodstock of the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, followed by the seedlings that are thinned by the natural seedlings collected from the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea, and the trout fry in the South China Sea are smaller. Artificial propagation of seedlings is also suitable for breeding, but the survival rate of natural seedlings collected is low. Regardless of where the seedlings come from, the fry seedlings have to go through an intermediate cultivation phase. After intermediate cultivation, the fry can not only acclimate artificial feed for feeding, but also can eliminate weak seedlings and develop large-size fish species with uniform size and robustness. This is an important link to increase survival rate and obtain high yield. The specific methods are as follows: 1. Set up the cages on the side of the pond ready to breed fish into a feeding bridge, set up a number of cages on both sides of the trestle, the material can be used to grow about 3 to 5 meshes of about 14 meshes of polyethylene mesh. Meters, 2 meters wide and 1.5 meters deep, fixed with bamboo rods. 2. Prepare for dilute aquaculture. Whether it is artificially propagated fry or natural fish caught, they all grow in seawater with high salinity, and require the seedlings to carry out multiple desalinations, and no more than 5% of the culture ponds. Salinity can be stocked. In the freshwater pond nursery, but also in the cage around a plastic film surrounded by a small body of water, appropriate salt before the vote to vote close to the pre-stocking salinity, so that after the fry put a period of adaptation to improve the survival rate. 3, the density of nursery seedlings in the original pond, which will help reduce the fish pond caused by the damage and allow the fish to adapt to the pond water quality. The fry used to grow is 2-3 cm in length and is stocked in 500 cages per square meter. The number of nursery for each pond can be approximately 20%-30% more than that of the stocks planned to be stocked, in order to prepare for death loss and retention. margin. 4. The method of feeding bait and domesticating fish is to use fresh fish larvae as baits, and evenly spread the puffer fish into cages. Each feeding time should be no less than half an hour. Trained fryers should rush to eat and feed 4 to every day. For 5 meals, the daily feed is about 30% of the fish's body weight. It is good to observe that the fry can eat and eat enough. The specific criterion is to stop feeding when the strength of the fry is reduced, so as to avoid overeating and causing gastro-intestinal diseases. 5, timely grading and cultivation of fish fry for 10 days most have grown to 5 cm, this time should be sieved pond cultivation, reduce the big fish devour fish and seedlings can not eat less than the size of the phenomenon appeared. After 10 days of incubation, a small piece of water about 100 square meters was surrounded by nets around the cages. The fish species in the cages were released and fed for another 15 days. At this time, the fingerlings were already 10 centimeters in length and were then removed. The net, and then enter the Datang farming, this will prevent the fish species from entering the ponds to feed on biological feeds prematurely and discarding artificially fed baits. The middle of fry cultivation should pay attention to the fresh water of the cage and adequate dissolved oxygen. Oxygen can be set in the cage. The cage should be brushed frequently to keep the water flowing and exchange well. Feed 1, small fish require fresh, less hard bones, can be fed at seedling stage, with the individual's growth, should be cut and fed. Squid can devour a chunk of fish that is 1.5 times the length of its crack, and cutting and feeding can not only save feed, but also reduce water pollution. Small trash fish contain high animal protein. Feeding carp is fast, but it is limited by resources. In particular, annual closed fishing futures are expensive and difficult to buy, subject to restrictions of refrigeration, transportation, and certain water pollution. The feeding coefficient for small-fish feed is about 4-5. 2. Artificial pellet feed uses extruded feed containing more than 35% protein to observe if there is a waste of food. The pellet feed produced by the factory can be divided into various sizes and specifications. Theoretically, it can be made into a full-price nutritional feed that is not inferior to the small miscellaneous fish, and it can be properly blended with disease-preventing drugs. The source of artificial feed is stable and easy to use, especially for high-density farming, reducing water pollution and preventing fish diseases from having a positive effect. The feed coefficient is about 2-2.5. Custodial methods 1. Clear ponds and cultured ponds The ponds used to farm catfish have the best conditions through dry ponds, dredging and sun exposure, especially the old ponds cultivated for many years. Disinfection was conducted half a month before planting, and 50 kg of quicklime per acre or 20 ppm of bleach was used to disinfect with a suitable amount of water in the pool. If it is not exposed to dryness, 30 kg of tea bran should be used per acre to break up the immersed water in the whole pond to completely remove the remaining fierce fish. The disinfected ponds were fed with fresh water through a filter screen, and 3 kg of compound fertilizer was applied per acre for planktonic cultivation. The water quality was slightly green or slightly brown and the seedlings could be cast. 2. The seedling density of the seedlings raised by the middle reaches 10 centimeters. It is better to stock 2500 tails per acre. The 300-day breeding period can reach 1200-1500 kg. The seedlings are too dense and the ponds are susceptible to aging and fish diseases, making it difficult to carry out continuous production. Due to the high density of breeding and feeding, the eel rarely seeks to eat leftover bait at the bottom of the pond. Therefore, 100 squid and 30 flower pods and white locust should be placed per acre to reduce water pollution and increase aquaculture efficiency. 3, feeding squid gluttony, appropriate control of feeding amount, help reduce costs, reduce the incidence of gastro-intestinal diseases and water pollution. Feeding should be timed, fixed, and quantified. Generally, two meals a day should be fed. At 7 to 9 o'clock in the morning and 4 to 6 o'clock in the afternoon, the daily feeding amount is about 5% of the weight of the fish. To adhere to the habit of taming, take a bait bridge in the pond and hit each bait bridge or splashing pond water for each feeding. Greet the fish to swim to catch food, which is conducive to observing the eating and health status of the fish school. Contingency measures. The squid grabbed the suspended feed in the water and stopped feeding after sinking. Therefore, feeding the mixed fish should be slowly fed with patience. The pelleted feed should be buoyant. 4. Water Quality Management The high-yield culture of squid is high-density culture. It is very important to keep the water fresh and have sufficient dissolved oxygen. The main methods are: Change the water frequently, especially in the middle and late period, and change the amount of water every day to more than 30%; Diligent aerobics, the aerobic machine can be properly activated during the fry period, and the number of aerators becomes more frequent as the fish grows up, especially in high-temperature weather and in the later period of cultivation. Part of the aerators can be activated at night and during the day, Start up all aerators to keep the dissolved oxygen in the pond water above 5 mg/L. When biological preparations are applied, high-density farming will bring a lot of baits and excrement at the bottom of the pond. The harmful decomposition substances will have a high decomposition concentration and consume a lot of oxygen in the water. In particular, high-temperature weather is more serious, which is an important cause of fish diseases. Appropriate biological agents are applied to allow beneficial bacteria to remove ammonia nitrogen and nitrite from the water and maintain good water quality. Disease prevention and control 1. Ammonia poisoning During high-temperature weather, the ammonia in the water is high, and even nitrite is produced, resulting in the death of anchovy poisoning due to hypoxia. The main symptoms: fish swimming around the whole pond uneasy, up and down the chaos, fins congestion, dark red silk. Control methods: Immediately inject new water, release old water, pay attention to use wood to disperse the water when flooding, so as not to directly flush the bottom of the pond to accelerate the death of the fish; apply fluorspar powder (soil treatment agent) 10-15 kg per acre Neutralization of ammonia in water; attention to biological agents before the onset of attention. 2, enteritis disease fish low appetite, abdominal swelling, anal swelling, light pressure with yellow mucus outflow can occur throughout the year. The precautionary measure is not to feed spoiled fish. Treatment: 300 grams of furosemide per 100 kilograms of fish meal mixture, continuous feeding for 3 to 5 days. 3, gill disease is easy to outbreak of this disease, high mortality. The main symptoms: fish body color is dark, especially the head is very slow, slow swimming, unresponsive to external stimuli, difficulty in breathing, loss of appetite, increased mucus in the iliac crest, swollen gill filaments, erosion of the ends, body weight loss, outliers, Finally died. Treatment: Every 100 kg of fish daily with compound sulfamethoxine 6-8 grams, chloramphenicol 4-6 grams of mixed bait for 3 days. 4. Trichomonas, oblique tubeworms, and polyposis occur in the body surface and silk of the fish during the intermediate cultivation stage. Symptoms are weight loss of the fish body, darker body color, erosion of the mouth, and onset throughout the year. Prevention of the use of a large number of water changes, improve water quality. Treatment can be used 0.7-1ppm of copper sulfate and Ferrous Sulfate mixture (5:2) evenly sprinkle the entire pond, or with 20-25ppm of formalin Quantang spill. 5, red Skin Disease, ulcer disease fins at the base of congestion, redness, desquamation, skin rot, muscle exposed. The disease occurs in the high temperature season, a large number of new water can be replaced on prevention, and 35-40 ppm of quicklime is regularly applied to dry in winter. Treatment can be used bleaching powder 1ppm Quantang spill; oral furosemide mixture, 300 grams per 100 kilograms of fish mixed with drugs; intramuscular injection of penicillin, 3000 units per kilogram of body weight injected. 6. Fish lice disease fish parasites in the axillary part of the fish, skin and rays, so that the proliferation of silk epithelium deformation, inflammatory edema, surface damage, causing secondary bacterial infection and death. Treatment: Quantang spilled crystal 0.2-0.3ppm trichlorfon.

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