1, sowing time
The live time of cowpea spring bloom should be about 10 days before the local night frost. At this time, the soil temperature of 10 cm should be stable at 10-12oC. The sowing time in autumn should be 110-120 days before the local early frost.
2, the choice of improved species
The basic principle of seed selection is:
(1) According to the response of the species to the length of sunshine, the fine varieties with less stringent requirements for sunshine can be selected and can be cultivated in three seasons. The strict requirements for sunshine are only suitable for cultivation in the autumn.
(2) Determine the cultivation season based on the response of the species to the temperature. Cold-tolerant and heat-resistant varieties can be cultivated in the spring and autumn seasons. Heat-resistant and cold-tolerant varieties should be cultivated in the summer. Generally, the white peony varieties are more heat resistant than the green glutinous varieties.
(3) According to the local occurrence of pests and diseases of natural cowpea and natural disasters, the selection of pest-resistant, high-resistance and superior varieties can obtain stable and high yield. Introduce several good varieties for your reference.
Black seed king. This is a long-seeded black seed variety that combines early maturation, high yield, and excellent commercial properties. The vines are about 3.5 meters long, and the leaves are medium to small, very precocious, and begin flowering around 3 knots. The main vines are mainly pods, and the rate of pod formation is high. Generally, each vine grows to 2-4, and the pod grows to 70 centimeters. Up to 1.1 meters long, white and green rayon, end reddish, straight and symmetrical, no drum seeds, no tail. Seed black, about 145 grams weight, cold, heat, strong resistance, yield 2500 kg per mu.
Early birth king. This is an all-round premium cowpea variety that can be grown both north and south. Extremely early-maturing, one week ahead of the regular main varieties, very high yield, high rate of double pods, 20-50% more than the glutinous 28-2, about 3,000 kilos per mu yield, excellent commodity. White, green, no drum seeds, no rat tail, about 75 cm long, up to 1 meter. Wide adaptability, cold-resistant, heat-resistant, suitable for protective cultivation and spring dew-ground cultivation, but also for open cultivation in summer and autumn.
Heat-resistant king. This is a heat-resistant and high-yield cowpea variety. Medium ripe, starting flower section around 5 knots, special heat-resistance, still growing well in high temperature season, strong scab ability, medium leaf size, main vine scab, pupa length 70 cm, up to 95 cm The output of 2,500 kilograms per mu is more suitable for high-yield cultivation in summer and autumn than rust-resistant and coal-mildew disease.
3. Site preparation base fertilizer.
Kudou Daejeon should be used in combination with soil preparation and pedicure, especially phosphatic potassium fertilizer. In general, about 5,000 kilograms of decomposed heaps and miscellaneous fertilizers should be applied per acre. If possible, a small amount of cake fat or chicken manure should be applied to the surface of the sorghum. As a basal fertilizer, the combination of application and dispersal. The pods for cowpea planting are flat in northern China, with a width of about 1.3 meters. The south is sorghum, and the width (bag ditch) is 1.2-1.4 meters, and the depth of the ditch is 25-30 cm to facilitate drainage. Two rows can be planted in each row for harvesting.
4, sowing and nursery.
Sowing time should be selected sunny or "cold tail warmer", dry seed sowing, live seedlings can also be transplanted, under normal circumstances, seedling transplanting than live production 25-35%. When sowing, the thickness of the seed coating is 2-3 cm and then covered by a small arching film to keep warm. After the seedlings are unearthed, the ventilation and cooling will be strengthened to prevent leggy. When the first pair of true leaves is exposed and unfolded, it can be planted in Daejeon. The density is 3300-3800 holes per mu and 3 holes per hole. In the summer and autumn, cowpeas are often used for direct seeding. Before planting, they should be poured with enough water. Then loosen the topsoil, sow 3-4 seeds per hole, and cover about 3 cm of soil. To prevent evaporation of soil moisture, it is best to cover a small amount of alfalfa. There is no need to water before emergence, otherwise it will cause bad planting.
5, field management
(1). When the plant grows to 17-33 centimeters, it will be racked in time. The bamboo raft is generally inserted into a â€œpersonâ€ shape, with a height of 2.2-2.3 meters, one for each hole, and slightly inclined to the inside. Every two intersect, and the upper cross is placed with a bamboo pole as a crossbeam. The shape is herringbone, and it is sunny at noon. Or introduce vines in the afternoon.
(2) Wipe the bud to the top. When the lateral branches below the first inflorescence grow to 3 cm in length, they should be removed in time to ensure that the main vine is thick. The main branch of the first inflorescence of the main branch after leaving 2-3 leaves to pick up the heart, and promote the formation of the first inflorescence on the side branch. When the main vine grows to 15-20 knots, reaching a height of 2-2.3 meters, cut off the top and promote the formation of flower buds on the lower branch.
(3), fertilizer and water management. After Qi bean seedlings or planting seedlings are replanted, generally one cultivator, loose soil and top dressing are applied, and about 20% of the fermented manure per acre is about 750 kilograms of manure. When the seedling height reaches 25-30 centimeters high, 15 kilograms of urea per acre is used to dilute the water. After the first inflorescence begins to scab, it is advisable to increase the amount of top dressing and keep the soil moist. Generally 30-40% of human fecal urine dripping, every 5-7 days chase once, even chasing 3 times.
(4) Prevention and control of pests and diseases. The diseases of cowpea mainly include coal mildew and rust. Insect pests are mainly bean pods and aphids.
Coal mildew and rust: At the early stage of disease, remove the diseased leaves in a timely manner to reduce the spread of diseases and spray medicine as soon as possible. The main agent is 50% carbendazim 500 times, 75% chlorothalonil 600 times, spray once every 7-10 days, even spray 2-3 times.
Bean pods: After entering the flowering period, when the petals are open at 7-9 am, align the flowers and spray the following agents in time: 50% kill pupa pine 1000 times, 80% dichlorvos 800 times, every 5 days Spray once or so, while picking the flowers in the field. You can also spray on the plants after 7 o'clock in the evening.
Locust: can be sprayed with 40% dimethoate emulsion 1000 times, 80% dichlorvos emulsion 1000-1500 times, sprayed once every 7 days, even sprayed 2-3 times.
Spring sowing of kidney beans can be harvested within 8 to 10 days after flowering and harvested 6-8 days after flowering in summer. When the crumbs are uniform in thickness, the buckwheat flour does not bulge, and it is suitable for harvesting when the standard for the commodity is reached. When harvesting, it is necessary to protect the flowers on the top of the inflorescence and not to pick it off with flower handles. It is harvested once a day in the general harvest period and once a day in the later period.
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