Identification of smut of corn tumor and comprehensive control measures

Due to the improper handling of spring drought, autumn crops, and residual pathogens in recent years, the occurrence of schistosomiasis in some corn fields in our county has been widespread and widespread, and has become one of the major diseases in corn production.
First, the harm symptoms: The main feature of tumor smut is the formation of enlarged tumors in the diseased plants. Tassels, ears, aerial roots, stems, leaves, sheaths, axillary buds and other parts of the corn can produce tumors, but the shapes and sizes vary greatly. Tumors are nearly spherical, angular, rod-shaped, or irregular, some are solitary, some are clustered or stacked, and they vary in size. The appearance of the tumor is a white, off-white film. The inside is tender, white, soft and juicey, and turns gray and black when mature. In general, a corn can produce multiple tumors.
Second, the cause of the occurrence: corn tumor smut incidence and climate conditions, bacteria source number and variety resistance and other factors.
1. Climatic conditions. High temperature and high humidity are favorable for the germination of teliospores, while the host tissues grow soft and vulnerable. Maize is affected by drought, especially drought before young panicle differentiation, plant resistance to disease declines, and at the same time due to the inability to quickly pass through the stage of maturity and extend the period of disease. Therefore, the wet and high-temperature climate after the drought is the main reason for the disease. In addition, storms or hail can cause a great deal of mechanical damage and aggravate the disease.
2. Cultivation conditions. After years of continuous cropping, a large number of pathogens have accumulated and the disease has become severe. In drought-sparing areas, the residual fungal winter spores in the field are prone to survive in sandy soils lacking organic matter. In the following year, the amount of newly infected bacteria is large and the incidence is often heavier. In wet areas or irrigated areas, it is rich in moisture. In organic soils, the pathogenic teliospores are easy to germinate or are susceptible to death from other microorganisms, and their incidence is often light. Therefore, the northern corn area is heavier than the southern corn.
3. Variety resistance. There are differences in disease resistance among varieties. In general, hybrid varieties, durum corn varieties, thick, long, tight varieties, and drought-tolerant varieties are more resistant to disease. Sweet corn and dent corn were more susceptible.
4. Improper handling of diseased plants. Because some farmers do not treat the corn stalks that are piled up on the roadside of the village all year round, some even throw the pathogenic black spores into the fields, causing them to spread to the nearby plots with the wind and form reinfestations. Cornfield blocks near the road are more severe.
Third, control measures: corn smut powder should be taken to reduce bacteria source, prevention-based comprehensive prevention measures.
1. Reduce Yinyuan. Completely clear the field sickness and turn the ground in autumn. When straw is used as a fertilizer, it must be thoroughly cooked. Severely affected fields have a 2-3 year rotation. During the corn growing period, combined with field management, when the tumor is not discolored, it is cut off early and the cut tumors are brought out of the field.
2. Use resistant varieties. When selecting resistant varieties, it is necessary to take into account resistance to other diseases, generally planting moderately resistant varieties, combined with other control measures to better control the disease.
3. Strengthen cultivation management. Closely plant the plant and avoid partial application of nitrogen fertilizer; Irrigate in time, especially before and after tasselling; Strengthen timely control of corn borer and other pests; Minimize mechanical damage.
4. Chemical seed dressing. Mu with 2% tebuconazole dry and wet mix 10 g seed dressing.
5. Perform manual removal. In the early stage of disease or after the detasseling of corn, the pathogenic bacteria “tumor” at the site of the disease should be manually removed, and the bag should be taken out of the field for deep-buried or incineration to destroy and reduce the amount of bacteria in the field. Must not be random, still unwitting.

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