First, soybean cake:
Soybean cakes contain harmful substances such as trypsin, urease, hemagglutinin, saponin, goitre inducing factor, and anticoagulation factor. However, most of these substances are not heat-resistant. Generally, these substances are removed by heat treatment at 100Â° C. to 110Â° C. for 3 to 5 minutes before feeding. Note that the heating time should not be too long, the temperature can not be too high, otherwise it will reduce the feed value of the protein.
Second, flaxseed cake:
Flaxseed cake contains cyanogenic glycosides. When cyanogen is introduced into the body, it will hydrolyze hydrocyanic acid under the action of lipolytic enzymes and cause poisoning in livestock and poultry. Flaxseed cakes should be attenuated when used as feed. Commonly used methods are: the flaxseed cake crushed, add 4 to 5 times warm water, soak 8 to 12 hours, then drain the water, and then add the appropriate amount of water to boil for 1 hour, while stirring constantly open the lid, while adding vinegar In order to make hydrogen cyanide volatilize as much as possible.
Third, rapeseed cake:
The rapeseed cake contains glucosinolates and can be hydrolyzed into toxic substances under the catalysis of mustard enzymes. The detoxification method of rapeseed cake is:
1. The rapeseed cake is crushed, then boiled or steamed, and kept at a temperature of 100Â° C. to 110Â° C. for 1 hour to inactivate the mustard enzyme. When using this method, it should be noted that the heating time should not be too long to prevent the reduction of the feed value of the protein; and the feed amount should be strictly controlled because the glucosinolate is still present in the rapeseed cake and it may be affected by other sources of mustard enzymes and intestinal tracts. Decomposition of enzymes produced by microorganisms in the feed or feed continues to produce toxic components.
2. Since glucosinolates are water-soluble, they can be replaced with cold or warm water at about 40Â°C for 2 to 4 days, changing the water once a day. This will remove some glucosides. However, this method has a large loss of nutrients.
3. For every 100 pieces of rapeseed cake, use 4.75 parts of strong ammonia, or 3.5 parts of soda ash, dilute with water, spray evenly into the cake, cover for 3 to 5 hours, then steam in the steamer for 40-50 minutes; It can be dried in the sun or fried and stored for use.
4. Select a place that is sunny, dry, and where the ground temperature is high, dig a pit 0.8 meters wide and 0.7 to 1 meter deep, and determine the length of rapeseed cake. The rapeseed cake is crushed and water is added. 1 kg of cake is added with 1 kg of water and snow, soaked into the pit after being soaked in foam, and the top and bottom are each covered with a layer of grass. The top cover soil is more than 20 cm and the feed can be taken out after 2 months.
5. Feed the rapeseed cake with green fodder at the same time after silage; dry feed can also be done first, and no water will be provided after feeding. Although detoxification treatment is also strictly controlled, the amount of rapeseed cake fed should not exceed 10% of the diet.
Fourth, cottonseed cake:
Because cottonseed cake contains free gossypol, it is easy to cause poisoning in livestock and poultry. The commonly used detoxification methods for cottonseed cake are:
1. Take a proper amount of grass ash or quicklime and add it into 100kg of clear water to mix well. After the precipitation, soak the cottonseed cake in the supernatant overnight. The proportion of the cake liquid is 2:1. After soaking for 24 hours, use the clear filtrate for 3 to 4 times to feed.
2. In the every hundred kilograms of soil pressed cotton seed cake plus ferrous sulfate 1.2 ~ 1.5 kilograms, machine smashing only add 0.15 ~ 0.2 kilograms, and then soaked in water for 4 to 6 hours, you can feed.
3. Apply 2% ammonium bicarbonate or 1% urea solution evenly on the cottonseed cake flour and mix well. When the cake powder has a moisture content of 15%, it is appropriate. Then seal it with a plastic film for 24 hours. Feeding.
4. Spray 1 kg of soda solution 24 kg on 100 kg cottonseed cake, fully mix and suffocate with plastic film for 5 hours, then steam for 50 minutes to dry; also use 3% sodium hydroxide solution to soak 3 After 4 hours, the solution is drained, rinsed with water and dried. Cook for 3 to 5 minutes at 110Â°C.
Fifth, peanut cake:
Peanut cake itself has no toxins, but improper storage can easily cause aflatoxin and cause poisoning in livestock and poultry. If the peanut cake is infected with Aspergillus flavus, it must be detoxified prior to feeding the livestock and poultry. Common detoxification methods are:
1. Place the contaminated peanut cake in a crusher and place it in a jar. Add 5-8 times of water. Stir and let it settle until it has settled. Change the water several times until the soaked water is colorless. This method only applies to mildly milded feeds. For the sake of safety, the detoxified feed should still be used in conjunction with other feeds, and the amount of feed should also be limited.
2. Soak and rinse the infected peanut cake with a saturated aqueous lime solution for three consecutive times and then repeatedly rinse with clean water.
3. When the infected peanut cake is baked at 150Â°C for 30 minutes or exposed to mildew peanuts in sunlight for 14 hours, 80% to 90% of aflatoxin can be removed.
4. The moldy peanut cakes are sealed in a smoked can or plastic film bag so that the moisture content is up to 18%. Fumigation with ammonia for 10 hours can reduce the content of aflatoxin by 90% to 95%.
5. Add 5% quicklime to mildewed peanut cake, and the detoxification rate can reach 90% to 99%.
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1. Materials or ingredients used by the conventional food processing.
2. In the usual form and method of ingestion.
3. Marked with a label biological adjustment functions.
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