The reasons for the automatic flameout of diesel engines for construction machinery can generally be analyzed from the technical state before and after the flameout. 1. There is an abnormal phenomenon before the flameout (1) The rotational speed is unstable. The diesel engine gradually extinguishes. (a) Open the fuel tank cap, pull out the dipstick and check if the diesel fuel has been used up. If there is no oil, it can be started after refueling. (b) Put the throttle in the neutral position, and the transmission is in neutral gear. Turn the crankshaft by hand and listen to the sound of the fuel injected by the injector. If the sound of oil injection cannot be heard, it may be that the fuel is entering the air through the low pressure oil line. Check whether the oil pipe and each joint are damaged or leaked. If the air can be started after the exhaust, but the locomotive with a load on the diesel engine immediately unstable speed, indicating that there is a blockage of the oil, diesel fuel supply, diesel fuel filters should be maintained. In addition, if there is water in the oil blocking the oil channel in winter, the pipeline should be cleaned and dredged; in winter, if the diesel number is wrong, the low-pressure oil path will be unsmooth due to too much wax and poor flow properties. Causes automatic flameout. (c) If the sound of fuel injection from the injector can be heard when the crankshaft is cranked, the fault may be in the valve train. The rocker chamber cover should be opened to check whether the valve circlip or the lock plate is detached, whether the valve and valve seat are ablated or loosened, and whether the valve and the guide pipe, the rocker arm and the rocker arm shaft are lost due to sintering, and the rocker arm pusher Whether it is detached, if the valve adjustment screw is loose, and if the valve clearance is correct. It must be repaired before restarting. When doing inspections and adjustments, special precautions should be taken to prevent the valve from falling into the cylinder so as to avoid serious ramming. (2) White smoke from the exhaust pipe (a) Check if there is water in the diesel. The oil drain plug of the tank can be opened, and the water can be drained before starting. (b) If white smoke is emitted after start-up, it may be that the cylinder head is washed out, causing the cooling water in the water channel of the body to flow into the cylinder. Check that there is water in the sump oil and replace the cylinder pad and oil if necessary. (c) If the temperature in winter is low, the diesel engine will be too cold and will emit white smoke after it starts. If the locomotive immediately increases the load at this time, it will be automatically extinguished due to poor combustion of diesel in the cylinder and insufficient power. Wait until the water temperature rises to 50 degrees Celsius and let the locomotive go into normal operation. (3) Exhaust pipe emits black smoke (a) If the locomotive load increases suddenly, the rotation speed of the diesel engine will be significantly reduced, so that the excessive amount of diesel injected into the cylinder will be black smoke due to burning. If the locomotive does not lighten up in time, the diesel engine may be forced to turn off. If the crankshaft can be cranked at this time, restart it. (b) When it is felt that the locomotive power is obviously insufficient, and the exhaust pipe is emitting more and more black smoke, and the flame is automatically extinguished, the air filter may be blocked. The air cleaner should be maintained and replaced if necessary. (c) 1L diesel fuel needs to supply 15,000L of air for full combustion. Due to the thin air in the plateau region, the power of diesel engines will also drop drastically. For example, the machines constructed on the Qinghai-Tibet Railway in the past two years are mostly located at an altitude of 4000m above sea level, where the air density is less than 2/3 of that in the plain areas. If the operation is improper, the diesel engines are also prone to flameout. For this reason, it is required that the locomotive drive should be as gentle and stable as possible, and the load should be controlled within the medium load during the operation. (d) When the diesel engine has burned or hung cylinders or cylinder sticking cylinders, the machine sound becomes very heavy and the speed is getting lower and lower. At the same time, the exhaust pipe emits a lot of black smoke. Finally, it is automatically turned off and it cannot be turned by hand. Shake the crankshaft. At this time, it is not allowed to start again. The locomotive should be allowed to hang the neutral gear and pulled back to the resident for maintenance. 2, there is no abnormal phenomenon before the flameout, in this case, it is often caused by a failure of the diesel engine fuel system high-pressure oil line; that is, the fuel system to stop the injection of oil into the cylinder, causing the diesel engine suddenly automatic flameout. (1) Injector does not work Injector needle valve parts will be issued or seized due to corrosion of moisture or acid elements in diesel; damaged sealing surface of needle valve, intrusion of combustible gas in the cylinder and formation of coke, will also make Needle valve stuck. At this point, the injector stops spraying and the diesel engine automatically shuts off. (2) Deterioration of fuel injector operation If the fuel injector drips heavily, the adjusting spring breaks, and the fitting clearance increases due to wear of the needle valve coupling, the injection pressure will drop, the diesel atomization will be poor, and the injection timing will be delayed. . At this time, diesel engine oil consumption rises, power drops, and locomotives with heavy-duty diesel engines also easily turn off. (3) The fuel pump does not work or the work deteriorates. If the plunger is stuck, the plunger is removed from the pull rod, the oil valve or the plunger is seriously worn, the plunger spring or the outlet valve spring is broken, and the fuel injection pump is driven. Broken bolts, etc., will make the fuel pump not work or work deteriorated, causing the diesel engine to stall. (4) Breaking of high pressure oil pipe The high pressure oil pipe is both thin and long and bears high pressure. If the oil pipe is aged and fractured or the joint loosens and leaks oil, the oil supply will be interrupted and the diesel engine will be extinguished.
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